Baseball's Steroid Era - News Lists, Timelines, Quotes, Statistics

Baseball's Steroid Era

Extensive steroid era news archive and research tools including lists (users, drugs, suspensions), timelines, quotes, rumors, and important documents.

Known Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Baseball

Note: The descriptions below are intended only to give a rough idea of what the drugs do and why the players might want to use them.
A list of the performance-enhancing drugs mentioned, and presumably used, during Baseball's Steroid Era. These drugs include an anabolic steroids, steroid precursors (prohormones), steroid masking agents, and stimulants. The most common names for drugs are listed in this menu. Alternate names for each drug along with their medical uses, performance enhancing uses, side-effects and players connected to each drug are listed with the details below.

Performance-Enahncing Drug List - Details

Amphetamines

Greenies, Adderall, Ritalin, Vynase, Dexadrine

Medical Use: Typically used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, brain injuries, narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Energy levels are perceived to be dramatically increased and sustained, which is believed to allow for more vigorous and longer play.

Side-Effects: Constipation, diarrhea, difficulty sleeping, dizziness, dry mouth, headache, loss of appetite, nausea, nervousness, restlessness, vomiting, weight loss, blurred vision, chest pain, numbnaess, seizures, fainting.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Unknown

Anavar

Oxandrolone, Lipidex, Anatrophill, Lonavar

Medical Use: Steroid used to expedite wound healing and in treatment of hepatitis, cancer, and AIDS wasting. Also used to treat children with growth deficiencies.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery. Generally considered to be the safest of all steroids.

Side-Effects: Constipation; diarrhea; difficulty sleeping; dizziness; dry mouth; headache; loss of appetite; nausea; nervousness; restlessness; stomach pain or upset; unpleasant taste; vomiting; weight loss.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Unknown

Andriol

Testosterone Undecanoate, Mexican Beans

Medical Use: Anabolic steroid used in treatment of testosterone deficiency, including hypogonadism, andropause and related conditions such as delayed puberty in boys.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery. A fast-acting steroids believed to clear the user's system within a few days.

Side-Effects: Liver Damage, Acne, Sterility, High Blood Pressure, Enlarged Prostate, Gynocomastia (Development of breast tissue in males), Virilization (Development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Gary Sheffield

Clomid

Clomifene, Clomiphene Citrate, Serophene

Medical Use: Female fertility drug. Changes the hormone balance of the body.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Enhances the effect of testosterone and masks use of steroids on drug tests.

Side-Effects: Headaches, hot flashes. Can exacerbate pituitary gland tumors.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, Bobby Estalella

The Clear

THG, Tetrahydrogestrinone, Norbolethone

Medical use: None. An undectectable BALCO steroid. Related to gestrinone, a synthetic hormone used to treat the female gynecological condition endometriosis, and trenbolone, used to improve muscle quality in cattle.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Elite athletes were told "the clear" was a steroid "undetectable" by conventional steroid tests.

Side-Effects: Unknown. Likely similar to other anabolic steroids.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Marvin Bernard, Armando Rios, Randy Velarde, Gary Sheffield, Bobby Estalella

Clenbuterol

Ventipulmin

Medical use: Used to treat airway obstruction in horses. Outside of the U.S. it is prescribed to sufferers of breathing disorders, such as asthma, as a decongestant and bronchodilator.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Clenbuterol is used for its ability to reduce body fat and increase skeletal muscle mass. Body builders and athletes use Clenbuterol after steroids to balance the resulting catabolic phase and obtain maximum strength and muscle mass.

Side-Effects: Headaches, Tremors, Cramps, Restlessness/nervousness, Anxiety, Insomnia, Sweating, Increased appetite, Nausea, Palpitations, Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Jason Grimsley, Juan Gonzalez

The Cream

Testosterone-Epitestosterone Cream

Medical Use: None. A BALCO steroid. A mixture of testosterone and epitestosterone, a naturally produced substance with no known function.

Performance-Enhancing use: Builds strength. Undetectable on drug tests which measure the ratio between testosterone and epitestosterone. Helps to balance this ratio while on steroids.

Side-Effects: Unknown. Likely similar to other anabolic steroids.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Jason Giambi, jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Marvin Bernard, Armando Rios, Randy Velarde, Gary Sheffield, Bobby Estalella

Creatine

Creatine Monohydrate

Medical Use: None. Tested favorably in teatment of Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid Retina.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Known to be 'perfectly suited' for baseball. It enhances a body chemical called ATP, which provides energy bursts that allow a person to accelerate, or create torque from a stationary position. Pecisely what is needed for swinging a bat or throwing a pitch. Shown in studies to increase the intensity of training workouts, enabling faster and more pronounced muscle growth.

Side-Effects: Unknown long-term effects. Few short term effects, none known, but allegedly can cause muscle, tendon, and ligament strains, and diarrhea.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Mark McGwire, Steve Finley

Deca-Durabolin

Deca, Nandrolone Decanoate

Medical Use: Prescribed to treat anemia associated with kidney failure, as well as AIDS wasting.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Popular with body-builders, it builds strength and muscle mass, aids workout recovery.

Side-Effects: Less severe than most anabolic steroids. Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Jose Canseco, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Mark McGwire, Barry Bonds, Jason Grimsley, Lenny Dykstra, Ivan Rodriguez*, Juan Gonzalez*, Rafael Palmeiro*

Depo-Testosterone

Testosterone Cypionate

Medical Use: Prescribed for any type of muscular wasting.

Performance-Enhancing Use: A muscle-building steroid long used by body-builders.

Side-Effects: Baldness; Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds

Dianabol

Methandrostenolone, Danabol, DBOL

Medical Use: An early anabolic steroid used legally by bodybuilders until it was banned by the FDA in 1970.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass and aids recovery.

Side-Effects: Baldness; Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Lenny Dykstra

Ephedra

Ephedrine, Ripped Fuel

Medical Use: Diet pill, Stimulant, Ancient Chinese: hay fever, asthma

Performance-Enhancing Use: stimulates the brain, increases heart rate, expands bronchial tubes (making breathing easier), good for working out. Amphetamine-like.

Side-Effects: May include irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, vomiting and hyperthermia. Chemical dependence may also develop.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Steve Bechler, Alex Rodriguez

EPO

Erythropoietin, Epogen, Procrit

Medical Use: Improves the ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen.

Performance-Enhancing Use: An artificial hormone that allows the blood to carry more oxygen, thus boosting endurance. It is favored by endurance athletes and has saturated such sports as professional cycling and cross-country skiing.

Side-Effects: Circulatory strain as well as damming (clotting) in smaller blood vessels.

Admitted or Implicated Players: None in baseball.

Equipoise

Boldenone Undecylenate, Boldabol

Medical Use: To aid in treating debilitated horses when an improvement in weight, haircoat, or general physical condition is desired.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Considered a long-term anabolic steroid, can last for eight weeks.

Side-Effects:High blood pressure, testicular atrophy, liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Matt Lawton

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

HCG

Medical Use: Female fertility drug, triggers ovulation in women.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Used by athletes to stimulate the natural production of testosterone after a cycle of steroids.

Side-Effects: Headache, mood swings, depression

Admitted or Implicated Players: Manny Ramirez, Jay Gibbons, David Bell

Human Growth Hormone

HGH, Somatropin, Serostim

Medical Use: Used to correct stunted growth in children with hormone deficiency, and to treat AIDS wasting.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds muscle and strengthens connective tissue, and decreases recovery time, especially when taken in combination with steroids or insulin. Some users report improved eyesight.

Side-Effects: Thyroid deficiency, acromegaly (a condition marked by growth of hands, feet and head), enlarged heart, cancer

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Jason Grimsley, Jeremy Giambi, David Segui, Jose Canseco, Paxton Crawford, Wilson Alvarez, Tony Saunders, Mark McGwire, Bobby Estalella, Armando Rios, Lenny Dykstra, Jim Leyritz

Increlex

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, IGF-1

Medical Use: Treatment for growth deficiencies in children.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds muscle and strengthens connective tissue, and decreases recovery time, especially when taken in combination with steroids or insulin.

Side-Effects: Less severe than HGH. Use by adults or any overuse can cause thyroid deficiency, acromegaly (a condition marked by growth of hands, feet and head), enlarged heart, cancer

Admitted or Implicated Players: None

Insulin

Humulin, Novolin

Medical Use: Treatment of diabetes.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Works like a steroid to build muscle, especially when taken with hGH.

Side-Effects: Sudden drop in blood sugar, potentially fatal "diabetic coma."

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds

Modafinil

Provigil

Medical Use: Prescribed for and sleep disorders including, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and excessive sleepiness.

Performance-Enhancing Use: A stimulant.

Side-Effects: Mild to moderate severity including headache, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhea, back pain, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, and dyspepsia.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds

Primobolan

Methenolone Enanthate

Medical Use: None. Primobolan is not an approved prescription drug in the United States.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass with minimal bulk development.

Side-Effects: Known for having fewer side-effects. Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate.

Admitted or Implicated Players: Alex Rodriguez, Barry Bonds

Prohormones

Andro, 19-nor, Androstenedione, 4-androstenedione, 19-norandrostenedione, 19-norandrostenediol, 1-AD

Medical Use: None

Performance-Enhancing Use: A direct hormone precursor that aids in testosterone production, and in turn lowering their body fat, building muscles and aiding workouts.

Side-Effects: Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Mark McGwire, Rico Brogna, Derrick Turnbow, Termmel Sledge, Jason Grimsley

Stanozolol

Winstrol, Winthrop, Stromba

Medical Use: Prescribed for hereditary angioedema, which causes episodes of swelling of the face, extremities, genitals, bowel wall, and throat.

Performance-Enhancing Use: It builds strength and muscle mass with minimal bulk development. Preferred by pitchers who typically want stregth but not bulk.

Side-Effects: Less damaging to ligaments than most anabolic steroids. Liver damage, acne, sterility, baldness, enlarged prostate, gynocomastia (development of breast tissue in males), virilization (development of male characteristics in women)

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Jose Canseco, Rafael Palmeiro, Benito Santiago, Paxton Crawford, Ivan Rodriguez*, Juan Gonzalez*

Testosterone

Liquid Testosterone, Injectable Testosterone

Medical use: The hormone is responsible for development of primary and secondary male physical characteristics, including genitalia, fat distribution, and muscle and bone mass.

Performance-Enhancing Use: Testosterone can give athletes an edge by helping them trim body fat and build up muscles. It can ingested easily via an injection, a patch to the skin, or a cream onto the arms and torso.

Side-Effects: Liver Damage, Acne, Sterility, High Blood Pressure, Testicular Atrophy, Enlarged Prostate, Gynocomastia (Development of breast tissue in males), Virilization (Development of male characteristics in women).

Admitted or Implicated Players: Barry Bonds, Mark McGwire, Jason Giambi, Jeremy Giambi, Benito Santiago, Armando Rios, Jose Canseco, Juan Gonzalez*, Rafael Palmeiro*, Ivan Rodriguez*

* In Juiced, Jose Canseco said that Ivan Rodriguez, Juan Gonzalez and Rafael Palmeiro were all on a combination of Winstrol and/or Deca-Durabolin, hGH and liquid testosterone

Creatine is a controversial but legal supplement. It is not a banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) or Major League Baseball.
Sources
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The List
« 129 »
Mitchell Report - 47
Admitted - 16
Implicated By Others - 34
MLB Suspensions - 27
Other - 4
Suspended for non-analytical evidence that player violated MLB drug policy.
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